Architectural Drawing 101
Drawing is called the delineation or the figure that is carried out on a surface with the intention, in general, of representing an image. Architectural, on the other hand, is that which is linked to architecture: the specialty oriented towards the design and construction of buildings.
An architectural drawing, therefore, is a graphic that is intended to achieve the representation of a work of architecture. It is a technical drawing since it is made by an expert who provides the necessary data to analyze, design, build and/or maintain the object in question.
An architectural drawing allows to represent a work of architecture.
Types of architectural drawing
There are various types of architectural drawings. Architectural plans, for example, are diagrams developed from an aerial perspective to show how spaces are distributed on a given level of a building. These architectural drawings can be compared to a map.
From a technical point of view, the architectural drawing makes it possible to represent a horizontal section of a building (by convention, this “slice” is made at an altitude of one meter above ground level), which allows us to see the walls, the doors and windows, among other parts of the level in question.
For things below the level, there is the plan view, which includes the floor, fixtures, stairs proper to the plan level, and in some cases furniture as well. Anything above it, such as ceiling beams, is usually represented with dotted lines.
We speak of a location plan when it shows the access roads and the limits of the construction, in addition to other structures (individual or grouped) that are close to it, if they are relevant to the design.
Different plans are part of the field of architectural drawing.
Project in an urbanized area
In the context of a planned project in a built-up area, this type of architectural drawing offers the possibility of pointing out the nearest streets and how the building would fit into the design of the development. Regarding the site where the work will be carried out, the vision is not detailed but general. Other buildings, parking spaces, gardens and paths, among other things, can also be proposed in this plan.
If the plan focuses on a specific area of the building, the architectural drawing is called a detail plan. It shows a reduced and large-scale part of the project, to indicate how all the elements will be adapted.
The detail plan can also be used to specify other data, such as decorations, especially of complex parts of the construction, such as the windows, the ridge, the eaves or the adarajas (the dentellones present in the lateral interruption of a wall), which cannot be clearly represented in an overview drawing.
Architectural drawing and elevation
The elevation, meanwhile, is the architectural drawing that enables the representation of a facade. This kind of graphic is used to describe the external appearance of the construction, either from the front or from one of its sides, and it is the most frequent type of architectural drawing in these cases.
The denomination of an elevation is carried out taking into account the direction of the cardinal points; for example, the south elevation of a building is the side facing south. In terms of geometry, the elevation is a horizontal orthographic projection on a vertical plane, generally parallel to one of the sides.
Three-dimensional representations, orthogonal projections and even animations are part of the field of architectural drawing, which can be developed freehand, with the help of different tools or by computer (computer). Its purpose is always to achieve a realistic representation of character.